Category: 3 theories of ethics

3 theories of ethics

Definition: The Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with the principles of morality and the well-defined standards of right and wrong that prescribe the human character and conduct in terms of obligations, rights, rules, benefit to society, fairness, etc. In other words, the ethics encompass the human rights and responsibilities, the way to lead a good life, the language of right and wrong, and a difference between good and bad.

This means it is concerned with what is right or wrong for the individuals and society. Several philosophers have propounded different types of ethical theories which are listed below:. Thus, ethics are the well-defined standards that impose obligations to refrain human beings from any misconduct, which could be harmful to the self as well as for the society. Your email address will not be published. Business Jargons A Business Encyclopedia.

Accounting Banking Business Business Statistics. Business Jargons Business Ethical Theories. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.Throughout history, a few moral theories have surfaced and have been analyzed for their strengths and weaknesses.

Utilitarianism is a moral theory that implements fair choices in an effort to ensure the least amount of harm is done to all parties involved. The utilitarianism approach requires that you decide what course of action needs to be done and evaluate the outcomes of each action.

3 Types of Ethical Systems

By focusing on the outcome of each action, utilitarianism demands that you decide on what course of action based on the benefits or harm of the actions without regard to the cost of the action. For example, Julie walks into a hostage situation. There are 20 hostages and she is told that if she shots one hostage, she will save the lives of the other Deontology focuses on the consequences of your actions and believes that when faced with life choices, you should operate according to responsibility and obligations.

A deontologist believes that morality is a responsibility for everyone as well as a duty. For example, if a man steals three loaves of bread and a gallon of milk to feed his family, it would be supported by deontology because of the moral responsibility and obligations of the man to care for his family. Sometimes deontologists are unable to determine certain courses of action as moral or not. When observing an unethical position, the virtue theory considers the person's reputation and purpose for committing the act.

If a high school student is temperate, modest, witty and intelligent and plagiarized on a class writing assignment, the virtue theory would analyze the student's past personality traits and interpersonal skills in order to determine whether the student is truly guilty. Relativism is a theory that deems your moral obligations and beliefs to be based on the individual environment. For example, in American culture cannibalism is considered taboo, while in other cultures the act of consuming other human flesh is accepted as a sacrifice or ritual.

Relativism determines morals and ethics according to the society that is being observed. Relativism argues that every society and culture believes differently and thus, each culture must be evaluated according to its particular cultural patterns and influences. Vanaye Hamilton has written professionally since Specializing in gardening, real estate, business and relationship topics, her articles appear on various websites.

She also maintains a successful blog and interior-design website. Hamilton is pursuing a Bachelor of Arts in organizational management from Ashford University.

Types of Ethical Theories. About the Author.In the study of ethics there are three types of ethical theories: intuition-based, end-based and duty-based. These three types of ethics seek to describe the rules, behavioral trends and moral codes that govern -- or ought to govern -- human behavior.

End-based ethics involves the idea that a person ought to do what produces the greatest good; the act that produces the greatest good is held to be the most moral act in a given situation. Whereas end-based ethics seek to produce the best result, duty-based ethics refers to a person's intentions; a person may do something that does not produce the greatest good, but if he intended for it to be a morally acceptable act, then it is.

The intention is the important part. Intuition-based ethics describes the way in which individuals should do what feels right. A person should exercise their own sense of right and wrong without becoming overwhelmed with intentions or consequences.

Intuition based ethics stem from the Aristotelian philosophers, such as Aristotle and Plato. Aristotle felt that human beings are born with natural senses of right and wrong. He thought that humans have two types of virtues, intellectual virtues and appetites. Intellectual virtues involve the rational mind and making conscious decisions, and appetites refer to a person's desire or emotional response. Sexual desire would be an example of an appetite. Aristotle felt that the key to moral living and ethical behavior is balancing intellectual virtues with appetites; a person must find a happy medium between satiating desire and using the intellect.

End-based ethics, also called consequentialist ethics, are also often referred to colloquially as utilitarianism. End-based ethics require a person to do whatever will produce the greatest good. For example, if a doctor is sick and needs a new kidney, then you might decide to sacrifice your life in order to give the doctor your kidney so that she could become healthy and save thousands of lives.

In this way, you have performed a morally acceptable action, as you have sacrificed your own life in order to save thousands of lives. Even if you sacrificed your kidney hatefully and with contempt for the doctor this action is still considered morally right since your intention does not matter. The only thing that matters is the greatest good in the end result. In duty-based ethics, your intention is of primary concern. Those in support of duty-based ethics argue that you can never know what will actually produce the best result, so end-based ethics are not possible.

As a result, what matters is your intention to do good; although each person may have a different concept of what constitutes a good action, individuals ought to do whatever they think is the right thing. This article was written by The Classroom team, copy edited and fact checked through a multi-point auditing system, in efforts to ensure our readers only receive the best information.

Three levels of ethical theory:

About the Author This article was written by The Classroom team, copy edited and fact checked through a multi-point auditing system, in efforts to ensure our readers only receive the best information.It consists in the attempt to answer the fundamental philosophical questions about the nature of ethical theory itself.

To simply put, it concerned with questions about what whether or not morality exists, and what it consists of if it does. According to Garner and Rosen, it worried about question such as:.

What is the meaning of moral terms or judgments? What does the values such as good, bad, right or wrong mean? What is the nature of moral judgments? Are these judgments universal or relative, or is it one kind or many kinds?

How may moral judgments be supported or defended? How can we know something is morally right or wrong such as, is it from the Bible? Is it from a famous educator? Normative ethics is the study of what makes actions right or wrong, what makes situations or events good or bad and what makes people virtuous or vicious; by referring to various ethical theories to provide action-guides for practitioners.

Basically, it seeks to tell us how we can find out what things have what moral properties, to provide a framework for ethics. For any act, normative ethics emphasizes on three elements: The agent the person who perform the actthe act itself and the consequences of the act. Then these aspects are being evaluated exclusively and distinctively through the normative ethics theories such as moral virtue ethics, deontology and teleology; each emphasizing on one of these elements. Applied ethics consists in the attempt to answer difficult moral questions actual people face in their lives.

It is the branch of ethics which consists of the analysis of specific, controversial moral issues such as abortion, animal rights, or euthanasia. Applied ethics is the actual application of ethical theory for the purpose of choosing an ethical action in a given issue, usually divided into various field. In order to determine an applied ethics issue, there are 2 criteria; firstly, this issue needs to be controversial in the matter that there will be specific groups of individuals, both support and against that particular issue.

Next, this issue must be a distinctly moral issue, which in contrast, concern more universally mandatory practices, such as our moral values to avoid lying, murdering and not only restrained to individual societies. In simple terms, an applied ethics issue is more than a mere social issues, it must be morally relevant. An unemployed man steals a can of milk powder from a convenient store, so that he could feed his 6 month old baby as he could not afford to purchase it.By Christopher Panza, Adam Potthast.

Ethical theory serves as the foundation for ethical solutions to the difficult situations people encounter in life. In fact, for centuries, philosophers have come up with theoretical ways of telling right from wrong and for giving guidelines about how to live and act ethically.

Here are a few ethical theories to whet your appetite:. Virtue ethics states that character matters above all else. Living an ethical life, or acting rightly, requires developing and demonstrating the virtues of courage, compassion, wisdom, and temperance. It also requires the avoidance of vices like greed, jealousy, and selfishness. Thus, acting rightly involves maximizing the amount of happiness and minimizing the amount of suffering around you. Sometimes you may even need to break some of the traditional moral rules to achieve such an outcome.

Acting rightly thus requires being motivated by proper universal principles that treat everyone with respect. Contract theory proposes thinking about ethics in terms of agreements between people. Doing the right thing means abiding by the agreements that the members of a rational society would choose.

Care ethics focuses ethical attention on relationships before other factors. As a result, acting rightly involves building, strengthening, and maintaining strong relationships. Acting rightly thus displays care for others and for the relationships of which they are a part.

To care ethicists, relationships are fundamental to ethical thinking. A Snapshot of Key Ethical Theories. Related Book Ethics For Dummies.Although there are several similarities between religion and utilitarian, religion is not utilitarian. The basic idea of utilitarianism is hat actions are judged according to their consequences and the relevant consequence of every action is happiness.

There is a similarity between religion and utilitarianism.

3 theories of ethics

For example, love includes wanting happiness and religious principles such as loving others the way you love yourself and doing to others what you expect them to you are founded on utilitarian. Many philosophers argue that people should be just and ethical because it is the only source of true and. Erik Erikson and Lawrence Kohlberg are famous theorist who have contributed a lot to the nursing profession. Erikson has eight stages, that he believed were accomplished at different periods of life, in his theory of psychosocial development starting with; trust versus mistrust during infancy; autonomy versus shame or doubt experienced at a toddler age; initiative versus inferiority during preschool.

The distinction does allow individual moral relativism to be compared to ethical egoism. Both theories begin by being centered around the individual, before they diverge in important ways. By exploring the way individual. Topic 1 Distinguish between psychological and ethical egoism and subject each to critical scrutiny in detail.

Compare and contrast ethical egoism with virtue theory. Egoism is a view that states that what a person wants is somewhat relevant to what humans actually do. There is two main types of egoism: psychological and ethical.

Ethical theories

These two views are very similar; because of this they can easily be interchanged. It is important to be able to recognize the dissimilarity of these two views. Utilitarianism and Kantian ethics are two systems that provide a way to approach life decisions, big and small. Kantian ethics, also called duty ethics, explains that for any action, people must act according to common principles, with no significance placed on the outcome.

The ethical theories. Some of the developmental theories are sexual development, social development and moral development. Both Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg view similarities as well as differences between the theories they each believe in regards to the development of a child social and moral development.

3 theories of ethics

Philosophy has many different theories and distinctions between different mindsets. Some are polar-opposites from each other, some are eerily similar; philosophy can be confusing with their definitions. These two contain the same ideas yet have a very big difference. If not properly studied, these two can be easily mixed up. Starting with ethical relativism, according to Analyzing Moral Issues, their definition is.

Similarities Descartes and Spinoza do relate with one another in some instances but they have very few similarities between making the connection between mind and body. Their shared views. Similarities and Differences in Ethics: The main aim of any ethical theory is to do what is right and good since it involves moral rules or acting based on specific ethical values. In certain cases, the right and good as well as the ethical rules and values are sometimes common to various ethical theories.

Even though ethical theories have different reasons for application, there is an overlap in these theories that result in similar conduct in an ethical situation. There are various ethical theories with differences on how they address ethics and morality including virtue theory, deontological ethics, and utilitarianism. Virtue ethics is a branch of ethical philosophy that focuses on character instead of rules or outcomes, as the major aspect of ethical thinking "Utilitarianism, Deontology or Virtue Ethics?

A Snapshot of Key Ethical Theories

Together with deontology and consequentialism, virtue ethics is currently considered as a dominant approach to normative ethics. On the other hand, utilitarianism is the ethical doctrine with which the moral worth of an action is only determined through its contribution to general utility.

As a form of consequentialism, the moral worth of an action based on this theory is determined by its outcome implying that the ends justify the means.British Broadcasting Corporation Home. Ethics are a system of moral principles and a branch of philosophy which defines what is good for individuals and society. At its simplest, ethics is a system of moral principles. They affect how people make decisions and lead their lives.

Ethics is concerned with what is good for individuals and society and is also described as moral philosophy. The term is derived from the Greek word ethos which can mean custom, habit, character or disposition.

Our concepts of ethics have been derived from religions, philosophies and cultures. They infuse debates on topics like abortion, human rights and professional conduct. Philosophers nowadays tend to divide ethical theories into three areas: metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics. If ethical theories are to be useful in practice, they need to affect the way human beings behave. Some philosophers think that ethics does do this. They argue that if a person realises that it would be morally good to do something then it would be irrational for that person not to do it.

But human beings often behave irrationally - they follow their 'gut instinct' even when their head suggests a different course of action. Most moral issues get us pretty worked up - think of abortion and euthanasia for starters. Because these are such emotional issues we often let our hearts do the arguing while our brains just go with the flow.

But there's another way of tackling these issues, and that's where philosophers can come in - they offer us ethical rules and principles that enable us to take a cooler view of moral problems. So ethics provides us with a moral map, a framework that we can use to find our way through difficult issues.

Using the framework of ethics, two people who are arguing a moral issue can often find that what they disagree about is just one particular part of the issue, and that they broadly agree on everything else. That can take a lot of heat out of the argument, and sometimes even hint at a way for them to resolve their problem.

3 theories of ethics

Indeed more and more people think that for many ethical issues there isn't a single right answer - just a set of principles that can be applied to particular cases to give those involved some clear choices. Some philosophers go further and say that all ethics can do is eliminate confusion and clarify the issues. After that it's up to each individual to come to their own conclusions. Many people want there to be a single right answer to ethical questions.

They find moral ambiguity hard to live with because they genuinely want to do the 'right' thing, and even if they can't work out what that right thing is, they like the idea that 'somewhere' there is one right answer.

But often there isn't one right answer - there may be several right answers, or just some least worst answers - and the individual must choose between them. For others moral ambiguity is difficult because it forces them to take responsibility for their own choices and actions, rather than falling back on convenient rules and customs.


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