Protection is the branch of electric power engineering concerned with the principles of design and operation of equipment called "relays" or "protective relays" which detect abnormal power system conditions and initiate corrective action as quickly as possible in order to return the power system to its normal state.
The quickness of response is an essential element of protective relaying systems—response times of the order of a few milliseconds are often required. Consequently, human intervention in the protection of system operation is not possible. The response must be automatic, quick, and should cause a minimum amount of disruption to the power system. In general, relays do not prevent damage to equipment; they operate after some detectable damage has already occurred.
Their purpose is to limit, to the extent possible, further damage to equipment, to minimize danger to people, to reduce stress on other equipment, and above all, to remove the faulted equipment from the power system as quickly as possible so the integrity and stability of the remaining system is maintained.
There is a control aspect inherent in relaying systems which complements the detection of faults and helps return the power system to an acceptable configuration as soon as possible so that service to customers can be restored. There is also a vital need to constantly monitor the power and the protective systems to analyze operations for correct performance and to rectify errors in design, application, or settings.
Reliability is generally understood to measure the degree of certainty that a piece of equipment will perform as intended.
Solution Manual Power System Protection By Paithankar
Relays, in contrast with most other equipment, have two alternative ways in which they can be unreliable. They may fail to operate when they are expected to, or they may operate when they are not expected to. This leads to the two-pronged definition of "dependability," the measure of certainty that the relays will operate correctly for all faults for which they are designed to operate and "security," the measure of certainty that the relays will not operate incorrectly for any fault.
Relays have inputs from several current transformers CTs and the zone of protection is bounded by these CTs. While the CTs provide the ability to detect a fault inside the zone, circuit breakers CBs provide the ability to isolate the fault by disconnecting all of the power equipment within the zone. Thus, a zone boundary is usually defined by a CT and a CB. When the CT is part of the CB it becomes a natural zone boundary. When the CT is not an integral part of the CB, special attention must be paid to the fault detection and fault interruption logic.
The CT still defines the zone of protection, but communication channels must be used to implement the tripping function. Figure 1 shows the zones of protection in a typical system. It is, of course, desirable to remove a fault from the power system as quickly as possible.
However, the relay must make its decision based upon voltage. The relay must separate the meaningful and significant information contained in these waveforms upon which a secure relaying decision must be based. These considerations demand that the relay take a certain amount of time to arrive at a decision with the necessary degree of certainty.Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read.
Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Other editions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. The electrical power system is a highly complex dynamic entity. One malfunction or a careless set relay can jeopardize the entire grid. Power system protection as a subject offers all the elements of intrigue, drama, and suspense while handling fault conditions in real life.
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Showing Average rating 4. Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. Majidfroozesh rated it liked it May 23, Ravi Shrestha rated it it was amazing Jul 21, Devinder Kumar rated it it was amazing Oct 10, Sathish Thinker rated it it was amazing Jul 28, Abdalhadi Zeidan rated it it was amazing Dec 14, Usman Malik rated it really liked it Jun 02, Lexma89 added it May 05, Mahmoud Elghool marked it as to-read Feb 03, The electric power system is a highly complex and dynamic entity.
One malfunction or a carelessly set relay can jeopardize the entire grid. Power system protection as a subject offers all the elements of intrigue, drama, and suspense while handling fault conditions in real life.
Fundamentals of Substation Equipment and Control Systems
The book reflects many years of experience of the authors in teaching this subject matter to undergraduate electrical engineering students. The book, now in its second edition, continues to provide the most relevant concepts and techniques in power system protection. The second edition offers a new chapter on circuit breakers to further strengthen the text and meet the curriculum needs of several universities.
Both, students and teachers, will find the book stimulating as it contains around well-annotated figures and numerous tables. It also includes 20 quiz sets consisting of about multiple-choice questions to test the students' understanding of the concepts discussed.
Written in a simple, clear and down-to-earth style, this state-of-the-art text covers the entire spectrum of protective relays--from electromechanical to numerical--for protection of transmission lines, transformers, busbars, generators, and motors. The presentation is stimulating, analytical but at the same time concise. The students will find the material very friendly and refreshingly simple. The book has a wealth of useful figures, graphs, and block diagrams to help the students assimilate the concepts discussed and develop practical orientation.
Bolero Ozon. Fundamentals of Power System Protection. PaithankarS. PHI Learning Pvt. KEY FEATURES: Explains fault characteristics of individual power system elements Provides thorough coverage of tripping characteristics of various protective relays Gives extensive treatment of numerical protection Lays special emphasis on graphical content Figures are richly annotated to make learning easy.
Fundamentals of Power System Protection S. Fundamentals of Power System Protection Y.Fundamentals of Power System Protection is given by. Bus Zone Protection includes, besides the bus itself the apparatus such as circuit breakers, disconnecting switches, instrument transformers ….
Differential Protection of Transformers is the most important type of protection used for internal phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth …. Direct connected generators are normally of smaller ratings and a typical scheme of Direct Connected Generator Protection ….
Gas Actuated Relays — When a fault occurs inside the transformer tank gas is usually generated, slowly for …. Generator faults can be considered under the following heads. Phase-to-phase faults. Inter-turn faults. Most faults occur …. Magnetizing Inrush Currents in Transformer contain pronounced harmonics but the current during internal fault conditions is sinusoidal. Two distinct effects of Loss of Excitation Protection are that the machine starts drawing magnetizing current of ….
Motor Protection — There is a wide range of motors in existence for various purposes. However, the fundamental problems …. Overload Protection Relay — Continuous balanced overloading of a machine causes overheating in the stator winding. An obvious …. Percentage Biased Differential Relay — In order to avoid undesirable operation on heavy external faults due to …. In the event of prime-mover failure the machine starts motoring meaning thereby that it draws electrical power from ….
This type of Restricted Earth Fault Protection is provided to detect earth-faults within the protected zone of …. Rotor Protection — As pointed earlier rotor windings may be damaged by earth faults or open circuits. Figure 6. Star Winding and Delta Winding — The magnitude of earth-fault current for a given fault position …. Stator Protection — The type of stator faults likely to occur have been discussed already.
The earth-fault current is …. Transformer Feeder Protection — In order to supply bulk power from a major switching station, the transformer is …. Nature of Transformer Faults: Power transformers, being static, totally enclosed and oil immersed develop faults only rarely but ….Would you like to tell us about a lower price?
The electric power system is a highly complex and dynamic entity. One malfunction or a carelessly set relay can jeopardize the entire grid. Power system protection as a subject offers all the elements of intrigue, drama, and suspense while handling fault conditions in real life.
The book reflects many years of experience of the authors in teaching this subject matter to undergraduate electrical engineering students. The book, now in its second edition, continues to provide the most relevant concepts and techniques in power system protection.
The second edition offers a new chapter on circuit breakers to further strengthen the text and meet the curriculum needs of several universities. Both, students and teachers, will find the book stimulating as it contains around well-annotated figures and numerous tables. Written in a simple, clear and down-to-earth style, this state-of-the-art text covers the entire spectrum of protective relays—from electromechanical to numerical—for protection of transmission lines, transformers, busbars, generators, and motors.
The presentation is stimulating, analytical but at the same time concise. The students will find the material very friendly and refreshingly simple. The book has a wealth of useful figures, graphs, and block diagrams to help the students assimilate the concepts discussed and develop practical orientation. Read more Read less. What other items do customers buy after viewing this item?
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Fundamentals of Power System Protection. Disha Experts. Not Enabled. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Switchgear and Protection. Electrical Power Systems. Power System Engineering, 3e. Power System Switchgear and Protection. Ryan Godsell. Customer reviews. How does Amazon calculate star ratings?Paithankar and S. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher. Published by Asoke K. Ghosh, Prentice-Hall of lndia Private Limited.
Fundamentals of. Power System Protection. I --IL. B a n k,f India. Saeed Book. Classification of Shunt Faults. Abnormal Operating Conditions.
Isolated Power System Interconnected Power System Negative Synergy of an Interconnected System. Protection System and Its Attributes. Sensitivity Selectivity Reliability and Dependability. Current Transformer Zones of Protection. Primary and Back-up Protection. Maloperations Reuiew Questions. Thermal Relays.
Protection of a Three-phase Feeder Directional Over-current Relay. Phasor Diagram for Voltage and Current for Forward and.
Reverse Fault Single-phaseSystem. Application of Directional Relay to a Three-phase Feeder Directional Protection Under Non-fault Conditions.
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Protection of Substation
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